APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

If, after looking at this guidance, you are still stuck, then we can help. If you have a quick question then chat to us online, and if you need more help then you can book an online APA 7 referencing appointment.

 

Online journal article with a single author 

Reference 

Author, Initials. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), start and end page numbers. https://doi.org/ or URL 

Anker, T. B. (2021). At the boundary: Post-COVID agenda for business and management research in Europe and beyond. European Management Journal, 39(2), 171-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2021.01.003 

In-text Citation 

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here.

Anker (2021) argues that... 

It can be argued ... (Anker, 2021, p. 173). 

 

For examples of online journal articles with multiple authors please click 'more' below.

 

more

 

For all articles with up to twenty authors, include all of their names in the reference and use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name. 

Online journal article with two authors 

Reference 

Author, Initials., & Author, Initials. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), start and end page numbers. https://doi.org/or URL

Mosam, A., & Todd, G. (2021). Dermatology training in Africa: Successes and challenges. Dermatologic Clinics, 39(1), 57-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2020.08.006

In-text Citation 

For sources with two authors, you should use both authors' surnames in each citation. If the citation is inside brackets, use an ampersand (&) between the names. If they are in the text of your work, use 'and' between them.

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here

It was discovered that... (Mosam & Todd, 2021).

In a recent study, Mosam and Todd (2021, p. 62) discovered... 

 

Online journal article with three to twenty authors 

Reference

Author, Initials., Author, Initials, & Author, Initials. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), start and end page numbers. https://doi.org/or URL

Dabić, M., Stojčić, N., Simić, M., Potocan, V., Slavković, M., & Nedelko, Z. (2021). Intellectual agility and innovation in micro and small businesses: The mediating role of entrepreneurial leadership. Journal of Business Research, 123, 683-695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.10.013

In-text Citation 

For sources with three or more authors, you only need to state the name of the first author, followed by 'et al.'

'et al.' is plural, meaning "and others".

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here

It can be argued that... (Dabić et al., 2021).

Dabić et al. (2021, p. 685) argue that...

 

Online journal article with twenty-one authors or more 

Reference

For an article with twenty-one or more authors, include the first nineteen authors names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand), and then add the final author's name. 

Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., Author, Initials., . . . Author, Initials. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), start and end page numbers. https://doi.org/or URL

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968. https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537

In-text Citation 

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here.

It has been stated that... (Wiskunde et al., 2019).

Wiskunde et al. (2019, p. 1941) stated that...