OSCOLA referencing style is used when submitting work for a module for the School of Law.  Due to the complexity of particular sources, some entries are very detailed.  Make sure to fully read each page.

OSCOLA calls for a single alphabetical arrangement of secondary sources by title or author(s) surnames and does not address how to arrange primary sources for academic work.   Check the assessment directions or assessment criteria for how you should treat primary sources in your assessments or consult with your lecturer.


If a work does not have an identified personal or corporate author(s), use a double em dash for the author’s position.  List these unattributed items in alphabetical order by the first word in the title at the beginning of the bibliography.  List named author(s) works afterwards in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname/corporate name. 


If there are multiple items by the exact same author(s) in the same order, use a double em dash for the author(s) position when listing the subsequent items.  List items in chronological order. 


Lecturers may ask for a different arrangement for the bibliography.  If in doubt, check the guidance in your Moodle module or speak with your lecturer.