APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Album by a modern recording artist

You do not have to specify how you listened to an album, but you can include this information if you are using a particular version which may have distinct features or tracks. Add this after the word Album in square brackets, separated by a semicolon.


Recording artist. (Year of release). Title [Album]. Record company.

Starset. (2019). Divisions [Album]. Fearless Records.

Twenty One Pilots. (2018). Trench [Album; Spotify]. Fueled by Ramen LLC; Elektra Records.

In-text Citation

If you mention the title of the album in your sentence, use italics for this.

The album Divisions contained... (Starset, 2019)

Trench (Twenty One Pilots, 2018) was the fifth studio album...


Recording of Classical music

Use the composer as the author. Include the name of the individual or group performing on the recording in square brackets after the title.

Use the publication date for the recording, and give the original composition date in brackets at the end of the reference. 


Composer. (Year of recording). Title [Album recorded by Name of individual performer or group]. Record company. (Original work published Year)

Bach, J. S. (2007). Six Concertos for the Margrave of Brandenburg [Album recorded by European Brandenburg Ensemble]. Avie. (Original work published 1721)

In-text Citation

If you mention the title of the album in your sentence, use italics for this.

This recording of the Six Concertos for the Margrave of Brandenburg... (Bach, 2007)