APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create it. If the author has a username rather than their real name, and you know their real name, use this followed by the username in square brackets. If you do not know their real name, use the username as the author.

If the video contains contributions by key individuals, these can be mentioned in the text of your work.


Author, Initials. (Year, Month Date of upload). Title [Video]. Platform name. URL.

mmunlocked. (2013, Dec 3). SEN in an historical context [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/fYHyMLn1uQE

Peralta Colleges. (2014, May 8). P-SPAN #368: Race, class and punishment: America's penal system 1960 - 2010 [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/fPimdolcc6c

Queen Official. (2008, Aug 1). Queen - Bohemian Rhapsody (Official video remastered) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/fJ9rUzIMcZQ

In-text Citation

You can cite a specific part of a film by providing a time stamp for the start of the section.

...this was described by Dr Mark Peace as... (mmunlocked, 2013, 7:19)

 Alessandro De Giorgi described... (Peralta Colleges, 2014, 25:40)

In the video for Bohemian Rhapsody, Queen used... (Queen Official, 2008).