APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Use the name(s) of the Executive Producer(s) of the episode as the author(s). 

If there is more than one production company involved, include them all separated by a semicolon.

You do not have to specify how you viewed a series, but you can include this information if you are using a particular version which may have distinct features or scenes. Examples of this could include special edition DVDs, subscription sites such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, or Disney+, as well as resources such as Box of Broadcasts. Add this after the words TV series in square brackets, separated by a semicolon. 

When a TV series spans multiple years, separate the years with a dash. If the series is still airing, replace the second date with the word present.


Executive Producer Surname, Initials. (Executive Producer). (Years of airing). Series Title [TV series]. Production company.

Crawford Collins, S., Featherstone, J., Graham, M., Willis, B., Pharoah, A., Dowie, H., Schweitzer, P., Burch, H., Calverley, S., Jackson, A., & Wenger, P. (Executive Producers). (2008-2010). Ashes to Ashes [TV series]. Kudos Film and Television; Monastic Productions; BBC Wales

In-text Citation

If you mention the title of the series in your sentence, use italics for this.

In Ashes to Ashes... (Crawford Collins et al., 2008-2010)