APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

Need More Help?

If, after looking at this guidance, you are still stuck, then we can help. If you have a quick question then chat to us online, and if you need more help then you can Book an online APA 7 referencing appointment.


Use the names of the writer and director of the episode as the authors. 

If there is more than one production company involved, include them all separated by a semicolon.

You do not have to specify how you viewed an episode, but you can include this information if you are using a particular version which may have distinct features or scenes. Examples of this could include special edition DVDs, subscription sites such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, or Disney+, as well as resources such as Box of Broadcasts. Add this after the words TV series episode in square brackets, separated by a semicolon. 


Writer Surname, Initials. (Writer), & Director Surname, Initials. (Director). (Year, Month Date of airing). Title (Series number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Initials. Surname of Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Production company.

Sellek, E. (Writer), & Glynn, S. (Director). (2018, May 8). Bubble wrap (Series 20, Episode 19) [TV series episode; BBC iPlayer]. In S. Harper (Executive Producer), Holby City. BBC. 

In-text Citation

If you mention the title of the series in your sentence, use italics for this.

You can cite a specific part of an episode by providing a time stamp for the start of the section.

In this episode of Holby City (Selleck & Glynn, 2018, 16:43)...