This is the Vancouver style for referencing, used at the Univerity of Portsmouth within the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences and the Radiography departments.

This guide is modelled on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). You may wish to consult this source directly for additional information or examples.


Before referencing your webpage, determine that the item you are quoting cannot be cited alone as an electronic book, journal article etc.


Make sure that the item you are quoting is not a homepage. If you are referencing a homepage or a whole website, see the referencing a website pages.


Webpages can be volatile and subject to unannounced change. Whenever possible the URL you give should be a stable URL and link directly to the webpage itself. A stable URL, also known as a 'permament link' is more likely to remain accessible. To check if a link to a URL is stable, paste the link into the address bar of an Internet browser to make sure that it works. If there is no stable URL for the item, give the homepage of the website.


When citing organizations that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not part of the name, place the country in parentheses after the name, using the two-letter ISO country code 


For example: Department of Health (GB).



Author Initials/Organisation's name (if any). Title of the page [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date or year of publication [updated YYYY Mon DD; cited YYYY Mon DD]. Available from: URL




National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Clinical knowledge summaries: Anaemia - Iron deficiency: Drug Interactions. [Internet]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; c2021 [updated 2021 Apr; cited 2021 Jul 19]. Available from:


Society of Radiographers. How the rise of AI-assisted CT will help transform clinical procedures & power radiology efficiencies [Internet]. London: Royal Society of Radiographers; c2020 [updated 2021 Jun 03; cited 2021 Jul 20]. Available from:


Diabetes UK. Diabetic Ketoacidosis [Internet]. London: Diabetes UK; c2008 [cited 2008 Oct 7]. Available from


NHS Choices. Hydronephrosis [Internet]. London: Department of Health; c2015 [updated 2015 Jun23; cited 2016 May 16]. Available from:


In text citation / reference list

Remember this will be a running number at the first use of a reference. If the reference is re-used then repeat the number allocated.

Keep your style constant, either parenthesis (number) throughout, or superscript number. Do not change between the two. If your department recommends a particular style then use that.

The National Library for Health (16)


The National Library for Health16