APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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When an author, corporate author, editor or group of authors/editors, has more than one publication in the same year, you should add a lower case letter to the date, for example: 

... it has been suggested (Harding, 1986a, p. 80) that ...

... for which evidence has been brought forward (Harding, 1986b, p. 24).

In two recent studies (Harding, 1986a, p. 80; Harding, 1986b, p. 138) it was suggested that ...

In two recent works Harding (1986a, p. 80; 1986b, p. 138) has suggested that .


This is how they would look in the reference list:

Harding, S. (1986a). The instability of the analytical categories of feminist theory. Signs, 11(4), 645-664.

Harding, S. (1986b). The science question in feminism. Cornell University Press.


If you are using multiple sources without a publication date by the same author, you can do the same thing but with n.d. In this instance you should include a dash before the lower case letter. For example:

It can be shown that... (United Nations, n.d.-a)

The United Nations (n.d.-a) state that... 

This date format should also be used in the reference list.


This should only be used when the author or group of authors is identical, and where the year of publication is the same. 

If an author has worked with two colleagues to produce two articles in the same year but those two co-authors are different for each article, you do not need to do this.