APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Author/Department/Committee, Title of report/paper, Year, Command Paper number. https://doi.org/ or URL

Macpherson, W., The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, 1999, Cm 4262-1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/277111/4262.pdf

In-text Citation

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here.

In the report it was stated... (Macpherson, 1999).

Macpherson (1999, p. 56) claimed...


For information about the abbreviations used for "command paper" please click 'more' below




The abbreviations used for "command paper" have changed over time. Below are the standard abbreviations used.

C. (1st series) - 1833 – 1869
C. (2nd series) - 1870 – 1899
Cd. - 1900 – 1918
Cmd. - 1919 – 1956 
Cmnd. - 1957 – 1986
Cm. - 1986 – 2018
CP. - 2019 –