APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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It is common to find sources where organisations are listed as the authors. These can be companies, groups or institutions.


Where you have a document produced by an organisation and the organisation is commonly referred to by an abbreviation/acronym you should do the following:


In the reference, give the full name of the organisation.


In the first in-text citation for the source, write out the name of the organisation in full the first time you mention them, and give the abbreviation in square brackets, e.g.

... clearly stated policy (General Dental Council [GDC], 2019).

The General Dental Council [GDC] (2019, p. 4) state that...


Subsequent citations can just use the abbreviation, e.g.

... measures to improve dental health (GDC, 2019).

The GDC (2019, p. 7) recommend that... 


In the reference list spell out the name of the organisation in full, e.g.

General Dental Council. (2019). ...


Do not create an abbreviation or acronym if the organisation is not commonly known by one.

If the organisation is not known by an acronym, you should use their full name in all citations.