APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Author, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of working paper (Working Paper Series and Number if available). Publisher. 

If the working paper has no number, include the description of working paper in square brackets after the title.

Author, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of working paper [Working paper]. Publisher. 

Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). National Bureau of Economic Research. 

In-text citation

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here.

It was argued ... (Deming & Dynarski, 2008). 

Deming and Dynarski (2008, p. 6) discuss the idea that...


If the working paper has more than two authors, please follow the guidance here.