APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Hansard is divided into three series: one reporting on debates in the House of Commons, one in the House of Lords, and one in the Public Bill Committees of the House of Commons.

The abbreviations for the first two are HC Deb and HL Deb. For debates in the Public Bill Committees of the House of Commons use the title of the Bill followed by Deb.

If you are using Hansard in print form, omit the web address from your reference.


HC/HL/Title of Bill Deb (Date Month abbreviated. Year) (volume number) col. Column number, https://doi.org/ or URL

HC Deb (13 Sep. 2017) (628) col. 871, https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2017-09-13/debates/2E5B0D05-5F8D-4AFF-8B8A-E436A2593F8A/NHSPay?highlight=stephen%20morgan#contribution-F638E95F-6752-4522-907B-C659B559FAA8

In-text Citation

Stephen Morgan MP (HC Deb, 2017, col. 871) questioned...