APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Pages and documents found on the UK Government website (GOV.UK) are created by the 23 ministerial departments and 20 non-ministerial departments, as well as over 400 other agencies and public bodies.

If you are using a document which opens as a PDF or HTML file, you should reference it using the guidance for a Report by a government department.

You should look for the department or body responsible for the particular page you are using to work out who the author is. Sometimes it will be a combination of a department and a named individual.

If you use a page or document without a department, body or named individual given as the author, you should move the title of the article to the author position at the beginning of the reference.

Note that GOV.UK is never used as an author.

If the webpage has no publication date use (n.d.) in place of this.


Name of Department. (Year, Month Date of publication). Title. Name of Website. URL

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport, & Whittingdale, J. (2021, June 14). Government increases licence fees for gambling operators. GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-increases-licence-fees-for-gambling-operators

Benefit cap calculator. (n.d.). GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/benefit-cap-calculator

In-text Citation

This was amended to... (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport & Whittingdale, 2021, para. 4)

The Benefit cap calculator (n.d.) gives information...