APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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For consistency, it has been agreed with the module coordinator for Probation that students on their course should reference and cite PSIs as online reports by a government department

The example below is for the PSI on Sentence Planning.


National Offender Management Service. (2015). Sentence Planning (PSI 19/2014). https://tinyurl.com/n2y92wvw

In-text Citation

If you are citing the same PSI more than once, you should follow the guidance here on using acronyms in citations.

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here.

The Sentence Planning PSI requires that... (National Offender Management Service, 2015, p. 5)