Referencing @ Portsmouth
Referencing is a vital part of your academic studies and research at University of Portsmouth.
Choose the referencing style you use for detailed guidance and examples for a wide range of material.
- APA 7th Edition - used by most students at the University
- OSCOLA - used by Law students and students studying Law modules
- Vancouver - used within the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences and by students studying Radiography
Additional referencing support
This guide aims to help you reference sources according to specific styles. Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.
Contact us for help
Still stuck? Contact us for help. We can't proof-read reference lists but we can help you identify the types of sources you are using and give advice on how to reference and cite them.
Be consistent in your referencing and always check with your tutors and/or your Moodle modules for preferred styles and approaches.