This is the Vancouver style for referencing, used at the Univerity of Portsmouth within the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences and the Radiography departments.

This guide is modelled on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). You may wish to consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

Standard form

Author Initials. Title of dissertation [dissertation]. Place: Name of institution; year.



Hardman JP. Rainer Werner Fassbinder's BRD trilogy: a manifesto for social and political reform [dissertation]. Portsmouth: University of Portsmouth; 1999.

Scott P. Evaluating the electronic requesting and reporting of laboratory tests in the renal unit of a district general hospital [dissertation]. Portsmouth: University of Portsmouth; 2004.

In text citation / reference list

Remember this will be a running number at the first use of a reference. If the reference is re-used then repeat the number allocated. Keep your style constant, either parenthesis (number) throughout, or superscript number. Do not change between the two. If your department recommends a particular style then use that.

Scott (14) concluded that ...


Scott14 concluded that ...


  • Dissertations are usually non-recoverable, except sometimes to staff and students of the institution to which they were submitted.