This is the Vancouver style for referencing, used at the Univerity of Portsmouth within the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences and the Radiography departments.

This guide is modelled on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). You may wish to consult this source directly for additional information or examples.



These articles are published online before appearing in print or being given a volume and issue number. There is also the possibility that they may be modified before final publication. It is therefore useful to acknowledge their status by putting Preprint before the date of publication online (YYYY, Mon DD). Providing a DOI will also help the reader trace the article. 



Author AA, Author BB, Author CC (list all authors). Article title. Abbreviated journal name [Internet].Preprint date [citedYYYY Mon DD];volume number if available (issue number if available):page numbers. Available from: URL doi: 



Namdar D, Anis O, Poulin P, Koltai H. Chronological review and rational and future prospects of Cannabis-based drug development. Molecules [Internet]. Preprint 2020 Aug 31 [cited 2021 Jul 08;25(20):4821. Available from:


Lotz M, Martel-Pelletier J, Christiansen C, Brandi M-L, Bruyère O, Chapurlat R. Value of biomarkers in osteoarthritis: current status and perspectives. Ann Rheum Dis [Internet]. Preprint 2013 Jul 29 [cited 2021 Jul 09]. Available from: doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203726


West LR. Strave: challenge yourself to greater heights in physical activity/cycling and running. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. Forthcoming 2015 [cited 2015 May 22]. Available from: doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094899


In-text citation/Reference List

Remember this will be a running number at the first use of a reference. If the reference is re-used then repeat the number allocated. 

Keep your style constant, either parenthesis (number) throughout, or superscript number. Do not change between the two. If your department recommends a particular style then use that.


Lis-Balchin suggests the lack of clinical studies (1 p93) is due to ...


Lis-Balchin suggests the lack of clinical studies 1 (p93) is due to ...