This is the Vancouver style for referencing, used at the Univerity of Portsmouth within the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences and the Radiography departments.

This guide is modelled on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). You may wish to consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

If no author is named on the item you are trying to reference, move the title to the start of the reference. Do not use Anon. or Anonymous unless the publication actually says that.


The Africa issue: still optimistic, but no sleep until G8 promises fulfilled. The Independent [Internet] 2006 May 16 [cited 2008 Sep 15]:5. Available from the Nexis UK database.

Top Tip: If you are dealing with a newspaper or magazine article, check whether the author's name appears in the first few lines of the article (... writes John Smith ...) or is listed next to the word "byline".