OSCOLA referencing style is used when submitting work for a module for the School of Law.  Due to the complexity of particular sources, some entries are very detailed.  Make sure to fully read each page.

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed. 


If the name of the law report series cited does not itself indicate the court, and the identity of the court is not obvious from the context, you should also give this in either full or short form in brackets at the end of the citation. When citing a decision of the highest court of a US state, the abbreviation of the name of the state suffices.


Give the jurisdiction if necessary.

For information about selected non-UK jurisdictions, please click on the More button.


Recommended sources of guidance

International Law

New York University School of Law, Guide to Foreign and International Legal Citations (2006). 

In the absence of any guidance below, please use guide above for other foreign jurisdictions.  These recommendations are from OSCOLA.



Australian Guide to Legal Citation (4th edn, Melbourne University Law Review Association 2018) 



McGill Law Review, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (8th edn, Carswell 2014).

Canadian Citation Committee, ‘A Neutral Citation Standard for Case Law’ (2000)



Follow the form of citation and presentation generally adopted by the Recueil Dalloz



Hildebert Kirchner, Abkürzungsverzeichnis der Rechtssprache (13th edn, de Gruyter 2013).



Jennifer Schweppe and others (eds), OSCOLA Ireland (2nd edn, legalcitation.ie 2016)



‘The Uniform Citation Rules’ (1989) 39 The Lawyer and (1998) 44 The Lawyer (in Hebrew)


New Zealand

Alice Coppard and others (eds), New Zealand Law Style Guide (3rd ed Thomson Reuters 2018)


South Africa

Follow the style used in the South African Law Journal House Style (2018)



Association of Legal Writing Directors and Darby Dickerson (eds), ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation (3rd edn, Aspen Publishers 2006)

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (19th edn, Harvard Law Review Association 2010)


For jurisdictions not covered above, please see the World Legal Information Institute website.