APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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If there is a personal or corporate author listed, use this and put the database name before the web address. If there is no personal or corporate author, use the database name as the author and do not include it before the web address.

Author, Initials. (Year of publication). Title. Database name. https://doi.org/ or URL

Wisson, C. (2012). Chocolate confectionery: Issues in the market. Mintel. https://academic.mintel.com/display/590114/

Whitbread. (2019). Number of Costa coffee shops in the United Kingdom (UK) from fiscal year 2008/09 to 2017/18. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/283302/number-of-costa-coffee-stores-in-the-united-kingdom-uk/

IBISWorld. (2020). Brexit impact statement A01.200. Fruit growing in the UK. https://my.ibisworld.com/uk/en/industry/a01.200/about

In-text Citation

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here.

A recent report showed that... (Wisson, 2012).

Whitbread (2019) reported that... 

It was reported... (IBISWorld, 2020, p. 9)