APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments.
Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer.
External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.
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The published records of academic conferences, congresses, symposiums and meetings are called conference proceedings.
Proceedings published in book form normally have the title of the specific conference as the title of the book, and have editors.
Proceedings published in journal form might be a special issue of the organising body's regular journal, or a special periodical series may exist to host the conference papers. The presence of volume and issue numbers can help with identifying these.
You can also check for an ISBN or an ISSN. A book will have an ISBN, while a journal will have an ISSN. Contact us if you are unsure.