APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Although you must reference anything you use which is not your own work in order to avoid being accused of plagiarism, you will find that many departments at Portsmouth do not allow you to use your lecture or course notes as sources for your essays. It is good academic practice to use the reading list and any slides or notes which your lecturer has given you, and turn to the sources listed in these when writing your essay. If your lecturer has not indicated where they got their information, and you want to use it, ask them for their source. 

In a situation where lecture notes or slides contain specific information which is only available from a lecturer, via Moodle, or from someone who took notes during a lecture, you should treat this as a personal communication as the source will not necessarily be accessible to your reader or marker.