APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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If, after looking at this guidance, you are still stuck, then we can help. If you have a quick question then chat to us online, and if you need more help then you can Book an online APA 7 referencing appointment.


If your lecturer has included a copyright cleared scan of a journal article, book chapter or other source such as a report in their course materials, you won't be able to provide a working URL as part of your reference. You should therefore treat this source as if it was used in print format. 

Follow the relevant guidance depending on the source type. 

For example:

If it is a journal article, use the guidance here.

If it is a chapter from an edited book, use the guidance here.

If it is a report by an organisation, use the guidance here.