OSCOLA referencing style is used when submitting work for a module for the School of Law.  Due to the complexity of particular sources, some entries are very detailed.  Make sure to fully read each page.

This source is not covered by the OSCOLA style manual. Suggestions on this page are modelled on FAQs on the OSCOLA website but have not yet been discussed and approved by the OSCOLA editorial board.


Examples include a speech, lecture, seminar, and announcement. Follow the general principles for citing secondary sources. If a source has an ISBN, cite it like a book. 

If the text of the communication is available as a print or electronic resource, and is recoverable, then this is what should be referenced e.g press release, website, speech, etc. However, if the communication is not recoverable it should be treated in the same way as personal communications. Most lecturers prefer you not to cite their lectures in your work but instead use the primary and secondary sources they have referred to in the lectures. 


Footnote standard form

Author, 'Title' (additional information, publisher year). 

If a source is available only online, then give the web address and the date of access.

Additional information may include a document number, a document description, a date of adoption and any other information that may help a reader to locate the source.

The publisher may be a government body or an organisation, and it is also possible that no publisher will be identifiable. Depending on the source, it may be more appropriate to provide the publication date, rather than the year.


For examples, click on the More button.


Footnote examples

Lord Bingham, ‘Keynote Address’ (Liberty conference, London, 6 June 2009) <http://www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk/publications/3-articles-and-speeches/index.shtml> accessed 19 November 2009.

Stavros Dimas, EU Environment Commissioner, 'Improving Environmental Quality through Carbon Trading' (Speech at the Carbon Expo Conference, Köln, 2 May 2007) <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/265> accessed 29 May 2011.





  • Consider if this is the best sort of material to refer to in your work. Are there recoverable sources which make the same point more authoritatively?
  • Information on arrangement of the bibliography.
  • In the bibliography, list these as secondary sources alphabetically by author.