APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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If the organisation which wrote the report is also the publisher, omit the publisher element from the reference. 


Author. (Year of publication). Title of report (Series number if available). Publisher. https://doi.org/ or URL

People's Dispensary for Sick Animals. (2020). Animal wellbeing (PAW) report. https://www.pdsa.org.uk/media/10540/pdsa-paw-report-2020.pdf

In-text Citation

If the organisation is known by an acronym, you can use this in your second or subsequent citation by following this guidance.

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here

Findings show that... (People's Dispensary for Sick Animals, 2020).

As the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals (2020, p. 10) found...