APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Author, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of working paper (Working Paper Series and Number if available). Publisher. https://doi.org/ or URL

If the working paper has no number or series, include the words Working Paper in square brackets after the title.

Author, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of working paper [Working paper]. Publisher. https://doi.org/ or URL

Thorn, W. (2020). Improving the collection of information on literacy proficiency in household surveys (OECD Education Working Paper No. 240). Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. https://doi.org/10.1787/d02155e2-en

Huong, D., Donoghoe, M., Hughes, N., & Goesch, T. (2018). A micro-simulation model of irrigation farms in the southern Murray-Darling basin [Working paper]. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. https://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/research-topics/working-papers/micro-simulation-model-irrigation-farms

In-text citation 

For information about the use of page numbers within in-text citations, please see our guidance here.

It was argued... (Thorn, 2020). 

Thorn (2020, p. 40) explains that...

Current debates suggest... (Huong et al., 2018). 

Huong et al. (2018, p. 5) argue that...