APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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After 1865, series of official law reports were published. You need to cite one of the official Law Reports; House of Lords, Privy Council, Queen or King’s Bench, Family, Probate, Chancery, or Appeal Courts (Criminal and Civil) if available. If not, cite (in order of importance) Weekly Law Reports, All England Law Reports, or another law reports series.

If the year of publication is used to identify the volume it should be in square brackets. If there are several volumes in one year, add the volume number after the year in square brackets.

If the volumes of the law report series are independently numbered, and so can be identified without the year, place the year in round brackets or parentheses.

If citing a court that heard appeals from more than one jurisdiction, add (appeal taken from and the jurisdiction abbreviation)


Case name [year of publication] Volume number Law report abbreviation First page number (Court abbreviation if not clearly indicated by reporter) Page(s) of specific material or paragraph number(s) of specific material in brackets, if desired (appeal taken from jurisdiction abbreviation). Database name or https://doi.org or URL

British Columbia Electric Railway Company, Limited Appellants v Loach Respondent [1916] 1 AC 719 (PC).

R v. Edwards (John) [1991] 93 Cr App R 48. Lexis.

In-text Citation

As noted in R v. Edwards (John) [1991] ...