APA 7th Edition is the most commonly used referencing style here at the University of Portsmouth. Below you will find general guidance on how to reference and cite using APA 7th Edition, as well as examples for the specific sources you are likely to use in your assignments. 

Your department or lecturer may prefer you to reference sources differently from the guidance given here. Always follow the requirements of your department or lecturer. 

External visitors are welcome to use this guide, but note that your institution's requirements may differ from those suggested here.

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Cite cases before the European Court of Human Rights to European Court of Human Rights, Reports of Judgments and Decisions (Eur. Ct. H.R.). Reports of Judgments and Decisions were discontinued after 2015.

For cases after 2015, cite the Court’s official website, HUDOC (http://www.echr.coe.int). If a case before the European Court is not available in print, you may cite an unofficial printed source or the Court’s official website, HUDOC (http://www.echr.coe.int)

Cases before 1999

These cases should be cited to Collections of Decisions of the European Commission on Human Rights (Eur. Comm’n H.R. Dec. & Rep.) or Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R. If not, cite European Human Rights Reports (Eur. H.R. Rep.). When citing Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R., indicate parenthetically whether the case was before the Commission or the Court. Indicate both the parties and the application number for the case:

Y. v. Netherlands, App. No. 7245/32, 32 Eur. Comm’n H.R. Dec. & Rep. 345, 358 (1982).
Smith v. Belgium, App. No. 3324/76, 8 Eur. H.R. Rep. 445, 478 (1982).
Iversen v. Norway, App. No. 1468/62, 1963 Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R. 278 (Eur. Comm’n on H.R.).

Cases between 1999 and 2015

Case name, volume number, reporter, page number where applicable, and year.

Ireland v. United Kingdom, 23 Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser. B) at 23 (1976).

Cases after 2015

HUDOC citations:

The parties’ names, the application number for the case, pincite (using paragraph numbers, if available, rather than page numbers), the date, document URL

S.M. v. Croatia, App. No. 60561/14, ¶ 81 (July 19, 2018), http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-184665


In-text Citations

Use the parties names in italics, followed by the year in square brackets within your text. 

In S.M. v. Croatia [2018] it was deemed that...